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## Introduction

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## Newbie alert : Simple Electrical Theory

**Getting started : defining the Terms****ElectroMotive Force (EMF)**Current flows because of the

**force**between positive and negative. This is measured in**Volts**and is what is created to make current flow.**Current**The

**amount**of electricity that flows and is measured in**Amps.****Resistance****Resistance**is the force within a circuit the opposes current flow and is measured in**Ohms.**Before a current can flow, it must make a

**circuit.****Conventional current**In electrical theory, current flows from positive to negative. Positive is designated (+) and is usually red. Negative or ground is designated (-) and can be black or brown.

**Activity**Use a breadboard to construct a circuit with a battery, led, switch and resistor.

**Exit ticket**Write up the challenge in Google docs

Include a digital image in your writeup

Save into Google classroom

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## Sub system : the Arduino board

The Arduino road map.

can you identify the following on your board

- the ATMega328 chip
- the 16Mhz clock
- reset switch
- the port you connect to your computer
- digital i/o ports
- analogue i/o ports
- ports where power is available
- external power port

Smarty pants speedy kids might wish to get straight to the "good stuff". If you have an Arduino kit, here is a set of exercises for you to try. ## Sparkfun inventors' guide(PDF)

**Reading Assignment**About the board from the Arduino web site

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## Newbie alert : What's a breadboard?

Breadboards are one of the most fundamental pieces when learning how to build circuits.

They allow you to connect components and test prototype projects before movind on to producing circuit boards.

Sparkfun breadboard tutorial - Topic 5
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## Ohms law

This law finds the ratio between voltage and current. This is called the resistance.

This animation models how the current (I) in a circuit, the voltage (V) and the resitance (R) in a circuit are related. - Topic 6
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**Resistance****Skill**Be able to determine the value of a resistor from it's colour code.

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## Resistor theory

**Resistors in a simple circuit**All about circuits **Resistors in a series circuit****Resistors in a parallel circuit** - Topic 8
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## Voltage dividers

A voltage divide is a simple method of controlling current in a circuit.It is a circuit used to create a voltage less than or equal to the input voltage.

If there is a constant input voltage, then provided the total resistance remains the same, the same current flows through both resistors.

It follows that for Ohms law to be obeyed, the voltage must be split in the ratio of the resistors.

eg input voltage = 6 volts

R1 = 1 Ohm

R2 = 2 Ohms

Volts in R1 = 2 volts

Volts in R2 = 4 volts

Changing the resistors in a circuit is a common way to control current for a LED.

The point of making a thermometer from a diode is to demonstrate that a materials physical properties can change in response to environmental factors.

The diode is set between analog two ports on Arduino and the resistance, hence voltage, changes with the temperature. By comparing the voltages against known standards, we can infer the temperature from the readings.*If it bleeds we can kill it,*

If it produces a voltage, we can measure it

if we can measure it, we can infer a value - Topic 9
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